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PSY504 Assignment 2 Solution 2021

PSY504 Assignment 2 Solution 2021

PSY504 Assignment 2 Solution 2021

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Question 1 (Part A)


Attention and working memory are crucial for everyday living and learning They're both aspects of executive functioning that help us take in and make sense of new information But while they're closely linked. these functions are not the same thing.

Attention is the process that allows us to take information in It also helps us select useful information. Think of it as a funnel. It gathers what we need to know and channels it into our brains. There are four important parts of paying attention well. Kids may have trouble with any or all of these components.



Kids need to be ready to pay attention.


Kids must be able to identify what deserves attention. For example. they have to be able to focus on the teacher. not on the voices out in the hall.


Kids have to be able to stay reasonably attentive over time. This could be for a three-minute presentation or for a 40-minute lecture.


Kids should be able to shift attention briefly when important new information is introduced. For example. they should be able 0, focus on a brief announcement on the intercom. Then they should be able to turn their attention hack to the teacher.

Kids with attention issues mas not recall what they've been taught That's because it never "got into their head" in the first place

Question NO 1 (Part B)
Five daily life tasks

Short Term Memory is a system that allows us to store a limited amount of information for a short period of time.

1.       Here are some daily life tasks for which we rely upon short term memory.

When we read the previous sentence and understand its meaning. Without shun term memory. by the time we had reached the last word of the sentence, we would probably have forgotten the first word we read here we can rely on short term memory.

2.       when someone gives us their phone number, we need short-term memory to keep the number in our mind for as long as it takes us to write it down or dial it on our phone. Here we can also rely on short term memory to remember phone numbers until we dial.

3.       When we watch cricket matches. and after the completion of the match when someone asked about who performed well. who scored highest and how many he scored? Which bowler took wickets and how much he conceded runs so now we rely on short term memory to answer all these questions.

4.       When we go for shopping after ow come back usually our parents asked that what's the price of your Shoes, what's the price of your jeans , what's the price of your shirt, what is the price of your uniform, etc. So, when such questions are asked by our parents to answer of all their questions here we rely on short term memory.

When we prepared ourselves for exams and when the day of exam has come now here we rely on short term memory how much we have still remembered that we read in last few days and when we have attempted our paper after that when someone asked what sort of questions you have asked? From which chapter the questions are? Etc. To answer These types of questions here we rely on short term memory to remember these things.


Question No 2 Solution

Che Atkinson-Shiffrin model. Multi-store model or Multi-memory model is a psychological model proposed in 1968 as a proposal for the structure and it proposed that human memory involves a sequence of three stages:

Sensory memory (SM)

Working memory or short-term memory (STM) Long-term memory (LTM)


Information passes from store to store in a linear way. and has been described as an information processing model (like a computer) with an input, process and output. Multi store model of memory diagram Information is detected by the sense organs and enters the sensory memory. If attended to this information enters the short-term memory. Information from the short-term memory is transferred to the long-term memory only if that information is rehearsed (i.e., repeated). If maintenance rehearsal (repetition) does not occur. then information is forgotten. and lost from short term memo through the processes of displacement or decay.

Sensory memory

The sense organs have a limited ability to store information about the world in a fairly unprocessed way for less than a second. The visual system possesses iconic memory for visual stimuli such as shape. size, color and location (but not meaning). whereas the hearing system has echoic memory for auditory stimuli. Coltheart et al (1974) have argued that the momentary freezing of visual input allows us to select which aspects of the input should go on for further memory processing. The existence of sensory memory has been experimentally demonstrated by its Sperling, (1960) using a tachistoscope.

Short-term memory

Information selected by attention from sensory memory. may pass into short term memory (STM). This allows us to retain information long enough to use it, e.g., looking up a telephone number and remembering it long enough to dial it. Peterson and Peterson (1959) have demonstrated that STM last approximately between 15 and 30 seconds, unless people rehearse the material, while Miller (1956) has found that STM has a limited capacity of around 7 'chunks' of 2/3 information. STM also appears to mostly encode memory acoustical!!! (in terms of sound) as Conrad (1964) has demonstrated, but can also retain visuospatial images.

Long-term memory

LTM provides the lasting retention of information and skills, from minutes to a lifetime. Long term memory appears to have an almost limitless capacity to retain information, but it could -be measured as it would take too long. LT information seems to be encoded mainly in terms 313 meaning (semantic memory) as Baddeley has shown, but also retains procedural skills and imagery

Question no 3


Here are some really interesting facts about our memory

1.       Our brains have the capacity to store up to 2.5 petabytes of data. That's the equivalent of three million hours of TV shows—or about the same storage as nearly 4.000 256GB iPhones (the largest size available).

2.       Children between the ages of five and seven remembered 6() percent or more of them early life events. eight- and nine-year-old recalled less than 40 percent of the same memories.

3.       Our brains function better when we're well-rested. One study found that people who were taught specific finger movements (like you would learn on the piano) were better able to recall them after 12 hours of rest. "When you're asleep, it seems as though you are shifting memory to mom efficient storage regions within the brain,"

4.       College students who participated in 45-minute meditation sessions four times a week scored 60 points higher on the GRE's verbal exam after just two weeks the —and if you have trouble clearing your mind when you sit cross-legged, try these 10 Ways to Focus Better.

5.     Both types of people could be tricked into false memories. For instance, when the psychologies used "lures' words like pillow. duvet, and nap, a majority of the subjects would believe beyond: reasonable doubt that they had heard the word sleep.

6.   It is believed that you can hold between five and nine items in your short-term memory. and they will stay there for just 20 to 30 seconds. Those memories that don't get stored in the long-term memory are ultimately just forgotten.

7.   When we think hack to the time when we first met our significant other, we have a 3/ 3 C project our current feelings onto our past memories. "Your memory reframes and edits events, crate a story to fit your current world "